Qurbani (Udhiyah) is the sacrifice of an animal performed during the days of Eid al-Adha, following the practice of Prophet Ibrahim (AS). Qurbani (Udhiyah) is a practice commanded by Allah (swt), So turn in prayer towards your Lord and sacrifice (animals). (108.2) , There is nothing dearer to Allah during the days of Eid al-Adha than the sacrificing of animals. The sacrificed animal shall come on the Day of judgment with its horns, hair, and hooves (to be weighed). The sacrifice is accepted by Allah before the blood reaches the ground. Therefore sacrifice with an open and happy heart. (Tirmizi, Ibne Majah)
The Prophet Muhammad (saw) was once asked by his Companions: (ra), “O Rasoolullah!(saw) What is Qurbani?” He replied, “It is the sunnah of your father lbraheem (as).” They asked again, “What benefit do we get from it?” He answered, “A reward for every hair (of the sacrificed animal).” “And (what reward is there for animals with) wool, 0 Rasoolullah (saw)?” they asked. “A reward”, he said, “for every fibre of the wool.”, (Ibne Majah), When a person slaughters a Qurbani animal, he is forgiven at the fall of the first drop of blood, and verily, the animal shall be brought forward on the Day of Judgment with its blood, meat etc, and shall be increased in weight seventy times more than its own weight, and thereafter it will be placed on the scale of deeds. (Kanzul’Ummal), NOTE: A Shar’ee traveler is he who goes on a journey with an intention of traveling forty eight miles. He will be treated as a traveler as soon as he goes out of his town. It is highly virtuous for one on whom Qurbani is not wajib to offer sacrifice for the Pleasure of Allah. He will be eligible for all the reward mentioned in the Ahadeeth. During the days of Qurbani, sadaqah and charity cannot compensate for Qurbani nor fulfil the wajib. Qurbani is a unique ibadah. Just as Zakah cannot compensate for Hajj, or Sawm (Fasting) cannot compensate for Salaat, similarly charity cannot compensate for Qurbani. However, if the days of Qurbani had passed, and the Qurbani was not offered due to not knowing, negligence or for some other valid reason, then it becomes wajib to give in sadaqah the price of Qurbani animal or the animal itself to the poor. If a traveler returned home or a person acquired the required wealth on the 12th of Zul Hijjah before sunset, it will be wajib upon him to perform Qurbani. A traveler who makes intention of staying at a certain place for fifteen days or more, no longer remains a traveler. He must offer Qurbani if he possesses the prescribed amount.
The Qurbani animal
It is permissible to offer in sacrifice a goat or she-goat, sheep of all kinds, cow, bull, buffalo or camel. It is necessary that the goat is one (full) year old, whether male or female. A cow, bull or buffalo will have to be two years old, and a camel five years. Animals that are younger are not suitable for Qurbani. A sheep (of any kind) not less than six months old, so strong and fat that it appears to be one year old will suffice for Qurbani, otherwise it will have to be one (full) year old. A cow, bull, buffalo or camel will suffice for seven persons provided no one’s share is less than one seventh and the niyyah (intention) of all partners is to attain thawab (for Qurbani), and not merely to obtain meat.
The following cannot be used for Qurbani
- Animals that have lost a third of the ear or the tail. Similarly, the animal which has no ear from its very birth.
- Animal whose horn has been broken off from the root.
- Animal which has one leg lame to the extent that it walks on three legs only and is unable to use the fourth leg.
- Animal so lean and thin that its bones have no marrow.
- Animal so weak that it cannot walk to the place of slaughtering on its own.
- Animal completely toothless or one that has lost most of its teeth.
- It is virtuous to purchase the animal for Qurbani a few days prior to slaughtering and care must be taken in feeding and nursing it.
The Qurbani meat and skin
- It is permissible to eat the Qurbani meat.
- It can also be distributed to relatives and friends whether wealthy or poor, Muslims or non-Muslims.
- It is better to divide it into three parts. One for the family, one for relatives and friends and one for the poor and needy.
- The skin of the Qurbani animal can be kept for personal use, e.g. using it as a prayer-mat, water bag, etc.
- If the skin of the Qurbani animal is sold, then it is wajib to give that amount in sadaqah to the poor (i.e. those who are eligible for Zakah).
- It is not permissible to give meat, fat, etc. of the sacrificed animal to the butcher as his wages.
- The meat of the animal slaughtered by partners should be shared by weight and not by estimation.
- The rope, cover, etc. of the animal should be given away as sadaqah.